Uko wakwirinda virusi, aba-Hackers, n’ ibisambo byo mw’ ikoranabuhanga

Abantu akenshi batekerezako kurinda umutekano mu by’ ikoranabuhanga ari ibintu bikomeye cyane. Cyakora hari ibintu by’ ibanze kandi byoroshye umuntu ashobora gukora bigafasha cyane mu kwirindira umutekano muby’ ikoranabuhanga. Bimwe muribyo nibi bikurikira :

1. Kwemerera amavugurura ya za porogaramu (Enable Automatic Updates)

Progaramu za mudasobwa zikunze kuba zihanganye n’ ibibazo by’ umutekano, ibyo bibazo nabyo bigenda bivumburwa. Harubwo usanga abakoze za virusi bagambiriye kwangiza porogaramu nyinshi nka Windows, Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Microsoft Office—n’ izindi nyinshi.

Muri iki gihe, porogaramu nyobozi(operating systems) nyinshi na za porogaramu zikorwa zishyizwemo uburyo bufasha kugirango zizajye zivugurura nyuma y’ igihe runaka bizifashe kwirindira umutekano, cg kuziba icyuho cy’ aho abahungabanya umutekano bashobora guca. Bityo usanga bidasaba umuntu gukanda ahantu kugirango amavugurura atangire. Harubwo usanga abantu benshi barafunze uko kwivugurura kwa mudasobwa kubera ngo bibabangamira, ariko burya biba ari ngombwa ko umuntu areka amavugururwa akajya yikora.

Kureka mudasobwa cg telefone ikajya yivugurura ni uburyo bumwe bw’ ingenzi bufasha mugukomeza kubungabunga umutekano wayo yirinda ibintu byinshi bishobora kuba byawuhungabanya. Ibigo nka Microsoft, Apple n’ ibindi bikunze gutanga updates, zifasha mu kuvugurura uduce tudakora neza muri porogaramu zobo ariko bigafasha no kongera umutekano.

2. Koresha porogaramu zabugenewe mu kurinda umutekano (Antivirus & Anti-malware)

Gushyira porogaramu z’ ubwirinzi cg antivirus muri mudasobwa burya ni ingenzi cyane. Harubwo abantu bavuga bati tuzagerageza kwitwararika bishoboka kugirango virusi cg ibindi byahungabanya umutekano wa mudasobwa bye kuzabasha kubona urwaho. Ariko burya ningombwa cyane gushyira antivirus muri mudasobwa cg telefone yawe nubwo wizeye ko wowe ubwawe wizeye umutekano wabyo.

Niba ukunze kumara umwanya ukorera kuri internet, uba ucyeneye porogramu ya antivirusi ifite imbaraga nka Kaspersky, Avira, Avast, nizindi. Ariko nyuma yo gushyiramo antivirus, ni ngombwa no gushyiramo porogaramu nka Malwarebytes kugirango nayo ifasha mu kubangabunga umutekano aho iyi porogaramu ishobora gukuramo uduhungabanya umutekano antivirus ziba zitabashije kubona.

3. Itondere ijambo ry’ ibanga(Passwords) ukoresha ahantu hatandukanye

Birashoboka ko ubizi ko passwords ari ikintu cy’ ingezi cyane, cyangwa biranashoboka ko waba utazi akamaro kayo n’ uburyo passwords zikunze gushyira abantu mu kaga cg mu bibazo.

Icyo wamenya nuko bitakiri nka cyera aho umuntu yashoboraga gukoresha password imwe ahantu hose. Ubu hateye ibintu bya hacking bityo niba ukoresha password imwe uba uri guha urwaho ibisambo kuba byazabasha kugera kuri za konti zawe zose mugihe bazabasha kugira aho bayibona nibura inshuro imwe. Uba ugomba gukoresha password ndende kandi ugakoresha passwords zitandukanye kuri buri serivise n’ imbuga za internet. Kugirango ubishyike ushobora gukoresha porogaramu zifasha mu kubungabunga passwords nkiyitwa LastPass .

Ikindi burya ni ngombwa gushyira password muri mudasobwa, n’ indi igufasha kwinjira muri telefone. Ibi ningombwa cyane. Ugomba gukora ibishoboka byose kugirango ubungabunge ibibitswe kuri mudasobwa cg telefone yawe. Gushyira password muri mudasobwa na telefone yawe bizafasha mu gukumira abantu babonetse bose kuba bakwinjiramo cg kuba babikoresha utabibahereye uburenganzira.

Tekereza ku bintu byose ubitse muri mudasobwa cg telefone yawe. Tekereza nanone kuri websites winjiyemo cg umuntu ashobora kwinjiramo ageze kuri mudasobwa cg telefone yawe. Ese urabona wakwemerera umuntu uwariwe wese kubyinjiramo ? Ese uzi ukuntu ari ibintu byoroshye ndetse by’ akanya gato cyane kuba watakaza telefone cg mudasobwa ndeste bakaba bashobora kuyikwiba ? Bityo uba ugomba kugira password ahantu hose uziko habitse amakuru yawe y’ ingenzi.

Urugero rusanzwe twatanga ni nkuko iyo ufite inzu udashobora kugenda ngo usige irangaye. Ahubwo usanga ucyinga cyane kugirango ibisambo bitazayinjirimo cyangwa ngo bikwinjirane, imfunguzo ukazibika ahantu hatekanye wizeye kandi izo mfunguzo ukaba utaziha umuntu uwariwe wese. Ndetse ibyumba bigiye biri mu nzu nabyo ukagenda ubifunga bitewe nibibitswemo cg nabantu bemerewe kubyinjiramo. Uko niko ugomba no kubigenza mu kubungabunga umutekano wawe mu by’ ikoranabuhanga kugirango hatazagira ubyinjiramo akakwangirariza cg akakwiba.

4. Genzura Links zitandukanye umenye niba zitekanye mbere yo kuzisura

Ngirango ibi ukunze kubyumva kenshi ko atari byiza gufungura emails ziturutse ku bantu utazi, kandi ko atari byiza gukanda(click) kuri links ushobora gusanga muri emails mugihe utazizeye. Akenshi, ibitero by’ ikoranabuhanga harubwo binyura mubantu b’ incuti zawe nabo baba bamaze guterwa, cg mubundi buryo. Ibi bikunze kwitwa phishing.

Niba ushaka gutekana, nibyiza ko utajya ukanda kuri links utizeye zaje muburyo bwa email. Ibyiza nuko washaka uburyo bwo kugenzura niba ibyoherejwe muri email ari ibyo kkwizerwa koko, byaba ngombwa ukaba wabaza n’ incuti yawe byaturutseho.

Ikindi ugomba kureba niba koko nyuma yo gukanda kuri link, niba ikujyanye aho yagombaga kukujyana. Ushobora kubugenzura ugashyiraho cursor hejuru ya ya link aho yagombye guhita ikwereka aho iri bukujyane. Niba bidakunze ushobora gukora "Right click" hanyuma ugahitamo "Copy link address", hanyuma ugakora paste ahndi hantu nko muri Notepad ukagenzura koko ariyo kwizerwa.

Ushobora nko gusanga link yanditseho "ebay.com" ariko mubyukuri aho ikujyana ari kuri "ebay.clickme.com", aho ugomba guhita ugira amakenga ndetse ugahita ureka gukanda kuri iyo link. Wibukeko nubwo iyo link ifitemo ijambo ebay, ntibivugako izakujyana kuri ebay, keretse nibura iyo ijambo "ebay" riza rikurikiranye na ".com"

5. Jya witondera za porogramu ukura kuri internet

Ibi nabyo bishobora kumvikana nk’ ibintu bisanzwe kuko yenda wabyumvise kenshi cg ukaba utekerezako ubyubahiriza. Ariko jya ukomeza kwitondera porogaramu ukura kuri internet. Ahubwo ukore download ya porogaramu zizwi kandi zizewe. Urugero niba ushaka nka VLC, ukajya kurubuga rwa VLC ruzwi ukaba ariho uyikura. Kuko harubwo ukora download kuzindi mbuga ariko ugasanga bashyizemo imitego kugiranga bakohererezemo na za virusi.

6. Ntuzizere ibintu byifungura kuri muri mudasobwa yawe

Nkuko twabivuzeho haruguru, ntizajye ukora installation mugihe ibyo ushyiramo utabizi neza cyangwa utabyizeye. Hara imbuga ujyaho ugasanga bakubwira ngo ugomba kuvugurura porogaramu zimwe na zimwe ziri muri mudasobwa yawe nka Flash, nizindi. Harubwo ubu buryo bwakoreshwa n’ abashaka kukugabaho igitero.

Reka dufatire urugero nko kuri porogaramu ya Flash. Ushobora kujya kuri website imwe bakakuburira yashaje kandi ko ucyeneye kuyivugurura kugirango ubashe gufungura videwo zitandukanye. Aho kugirango ukande kuri link baguhaye, wakagombye guhita wikorera ubushakashatsi nawe noneho ukayivugurura nibyo ariko unyuze kurubuga rwa Adobe rwizewe.

Ibi biba no kumbuga zikunze kwifashishwa mugusaba ubufasha butandukanye. Ntuzizere urubuga rwose rukubwira ngo kuri mudasobwa yawe havumbuweho virusi, ngo uwizere ko yenda byaba ari ukuri. Harubwo ubibwirwa biciye mukadirishya kifungura kuri mudasobwa yawe. Ntuzajye ukanda kuri ako kadirishya. Ahubwo fungura antivirus yawe hanyuma ukore update nibwo buryo bwiza.

UMWANZURO

Ibyo twavuzeho byose haruguru ntabwo ari ibintu bidasanzwe cg ntabwo ar’ ibikomeye mw’ ikoranabuhanga. Ntago bisaba ubumenyi buhambaye mu kubikora, yewe nta n’ impamyabumenyi bisaba. Ahubwo ni uburyo bworoshye bwo guhindura imikorere isanzwe kugirango wongere cyangwa urusheho kwibungabungira umutekano, kandi buri wese ashobora kubikora.

Byanditswe na : Jean HABIMANA / UBUHANGA.com / habijean2020@yahoo.fr

Share Button